Abstract—Ebola is a rare virus, which can cause severe acute hemorrhagic fever and high mortality for humans and non-human primates. In 2014, Ebola virus out breaking in West Africa triggered a grave disaster to the people of the world, finally, it has been inhibited successfully under the vaccine and effective drug. In this article, data from patients and deaths due to Ebola were collected, which were reported by WHO. These data were analyzed and researched the spread of Ebola by SEIR model. In this model, basic reproduction number obtained was 15, which was based on the number of dead and patients from June to September in Libya. And according to the sensitivity analysis for basic reproduction number, it was proved that improving vaccination rate and recovery rate of infectious are two effective ways to suppress the spread of the Ebola epidemic. This article gives a detailed and direct scientific theory basis for the control of Ebola virus in the end.
Keywords— Ebola, Differential Dynamic Equations, Basic Reproduction Number.
Abstract—Adolescence proves to be the most vulnerable phase in the path of human life cycle after infancy. Adolescent Girls (AGs) have many issues related to menstruation which is seldom addressed. Unhygienic practices during menstruation endanger the reproductive health and well being of AGs. Hence, a study was undertaken to assess the reproductive health status of Adolescent AGs.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 467 AGs attending Adolescent Friendly Health Service (AFHS) clinics in Ahmadabad city during May 2011 to august 2012.
Result: Mean age of AGs was 14.5+2.4 years. Out of 467 AGs, 296 (63.3%) had attained Menarche. Mean age at Menarche was 13.31+1.31 years in this study (Fig 1). Source of information regarding menstrual cycle was mother in 77.7% AGs in this study. Dysmenorrhea was present in 59.9% AGs. Dysmenorrhea was seen in 107(67.3%) AG in the late adolescence, 68(53.1%) in mid adolescence and 2(22.2%) in early adolescence. The difference in occurrence of Dysmenorrhea observed in different phases of adolescence was significant (χ2=37.423,Df=2,p<0.0001). Pre-menstrual tension was complained by 27.7% AGs and Vulval pruritus by 2% AGs.
Conclusion: This study highlights the need of AGs to have correct and complete information regarding menstruation at appropriate age from formal channels of communication which is mother in this case. Informal channels such as friends and sister tends to increase the misconception and improper menstrual hygiene which could make the AGs vulnerable to infection.
Keywords— Adolescent girls, Menstruation, Dysmenorrhea.
Abstract— A 56 years old male patient, a known case of prostatic malignancy with skeletal metastasis presented with ptosis, exotropia, diminished pupillary reflex and limitations in extra-ocular movements of left eye. MRI brain revealed diffuse skull base and leptomeningeal metastasis. Whole body CT scan showed metastasis in ribs, scapula and in pelvic bones. He was diagnosed to have superior orbital fissure syndrome due to metastatic prostatic malignancy and was offered steroids and radiotherapy.
Key Words: Ptosis, Prostate, Metastasis.
Abstract—Study on human skeletal for sex determination has been a topic of interest among researchers. It appears to be the main reliable bone exhibiting sexually dimorphic traits, specially the mastoid region. Present study aims to determine the difference in mastoid morphometry between male and female bone for sex differentiation.
Material and methods: A descriptive observational study was conducted at Department of Anatomy, SMS Medical College, Jaipur between April- December 2014. Forty dry macerated adult Human skulls of age group above 18-25 yrs of known sex were included in which suture between the basiocciput and basisphenoid were united. Vernier Caliper was used for measurements of Mastoid process in Frankfurt’s Plane.
Results: Mastoid length was significantly larger in males as compared to females on both sides (p value <0.05). Cut-off of right mastoid length of 32.39mm and left Mastoid length of 31.71mm were highly accurate in differentiating male and female skull.
Conclusion: The parameters like mastoid process length can be used as predictors to determine gender and could be of immense use in forensic medicine and anthropology and will also serve as a future framework for estimating the craniofacial dimensions of other Indian population.
Key word: Mastoid Length, Sex Differentiation, Sex Determination.