Relation between Back Extensor Strength, Bone Mineral Density, Kyphosis and Lordosis in Elderly Women
Abstract—Kyphosis and lordosis changes might be related to back extensor weakness and osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to find out the correlations between thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis with back extensor strength (BES) and bone mineral density (BMD).
Methods: Thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, maximal isometric strength of the back extensors and BMD of the lumbar vertebral were evaluated in 47 elderly (50-75 years old)women. BMD of the lumbar vertebral was measured using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and kyphosis and lordosis degree were assayed using a flexible ruler. The maximal isometric strength of the back extensors was measured using an isometric manual muscle tester (MMT). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and independent t-test at p≤0.05 level of acceptance.
Results: A significant reverse correlation was shown between BES and kyphosis (p=0.044, r=-0.30). No significant correlation were found between BES and lordosis degree, nor between lumbar vertebral BMD and, both, kyphosis and lordosis degrees. However, there was a significant difference in BES between three groups with various degree of kyphosis (p≤ 0.05).
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the severity of thoracic kyphosis may be influenced by BES. So, stronger back extensor can prevent thoracic kyphosis despite decreased BMD.
Key Words: Bone Density, Muscle Strength, Kyphosis, Lordosis.
Pregnancy Outcomes of Oligohydramnios at Term diagnosed by Ultra Sonography (USG): A Case Control study
Abstract— This study was conducted to find out if AFI ≤ 5 cms has any clinical significance in identifying the subsequent fetal distress & associated maternal & perinatal outcomes, in pregnancies beyond 37 weeks.
Methodology: This is a prospective case control study done from July 2010 to July 2012 (24 months) at Dr Vasantrao Pawar Medical College, Hospital and Research Center. Adgaon, Nashik. It study the pregnancy outcome comparison of 58 Anenatal Cases(ANCs)as Study Group with diangosis of oligohydramnios (AFI ≤ 5 cms) by ultrasound after 37 completed weeks of gestation were compared with 58 ANCs (Control Group) with no oligohydramnios (AFI > 5 cms). These two groups were matched for other variables like age, parity, gestational age and any pregnancy complication.
Results: There was significant difference between two groups. Hypertension and Preeclampsia were found significantly more in ANCs with oligohydramnios. FHR deceleration was also significantly higher in women with oligohydramnios. Women require LSCS were also significantly more in women with oligohydramnios. Newborn borned by women with oligohydramnios had significantly more chances to admit in NICU than in newborn born by women without oligohydramnios.
Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that women with oligohydramnios poor pregancy outcomes. Determination of AFI can be used as an adjunct to other fetal surveillance methods. Determination of AFI can be used as valuable screening test for predicting fetal distress in labour, requiring caesarean section.
Key Words: Amniotic fluid index, Oligohydramnios, Fetal Distress.
Abstract—Melasma is a third most commonly cited skin disorders was pigmentary problem diagnosed most often, other two are post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and vitiligo. So this study was conducted on 500 cases of Melasma attending at skin OPD of Charak Bhawan, a hospital attached to SMS Medical College, Jaipur (Rajasthan) with the aim to study its clinical pattern. Severity of Melasma was assessed by MASI. It was observed from this study that centro-facial distribution was found most prevelent (52.2%) pattern of Melasma followed by Malar pattern. Although mean MASI scores was found 12.47±5.093 but majority (53.2%) of cases were of sever grade followed by moderate and mild grade of Melasma. Malar area was most affected area (99.8%) followed by forehead area and chin area. Variation of area affected with Melasma was found significant (p<0.001). It was also observed that darkness as well as homogenecity was significantly more at malar region than that of forehead and chin. So it was also be concluded from this study that Melasma cases who are attending at Skin OPD are having melasma lesion on malar region and of sever grade. Reasons for this observation is o be explored with further research.
Key Words: Melasma, MASI scores.
Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) Performance Indicator Assessment of Jaipur City: A Cross-sectional Study
Abstract— NUHM was launched in 1 May 2013 to improve the health status of the urban population particularly slum dwellers and other vulnerable urban section by facilitating their access to quality health care. And ASHAs are a ‘bridge’ or an interface between the community and health service outlets. NHM set some standard for working of ASHAs. So this study was conducted to assess the status of performance indicator for ASHA in area of Jaipur city. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 172 ASHAs working in Jaipur city. It was observed in this study that more than 80% was achieved in percentage of families counselled, ANC adequately covered, Institutional deliveries and completely immunized for age in 12-23 months age children among ASHA performance indicators. Newborn visit within 1 week of delivery, JSY claims made and newborn who were weighed by ASHAs were achieved of 70-80%. And less than 50% achievement was regarding percentage of children with diarrhoea received ORS and fever cases who received Chloroquine within first week. It can be concluded from this study that best ASHA performance indicator achieved was of percentage of institutional deliveries which is 82.53%, followed by regarding ANC adequately covered with at least 4 visits, Immunization of 12-23 months age, families counselled, newborn visit within 1 week of delivery, JSY claim made, newborn who were weighed, deliveries escorted, children with diarrhoea received ORS and fever cases who received Chloroquine within first week.
Key words: ASHA, Performance Indicators of ASHA.
Abstract— Anemia in pregnancy is a major health problem in developing country like India. So this present study was carried out at Dr. Kusum Sharma Hospital Bharatpur (Rajasthan) India, with the aim to find out the determinents of anemia in Antenatal cases attended for delivery. period on pregnancy outcomes. For this study, 100 Antenatal Cases (ANCs) attended for delivery at Dr. Kusum Sharma Hospital Bharatpur (Rajasthan) India were included in this study. These ANCs were interrogated and investigated for hemoglobin estimation. It was found in this study that 63% of proportion of ANCs were having Anemia. Anemia was found to associate with age, residence, education, occupation and parity of ANCs but not with BMI and bad obstetric history of ANCs. Anemia was found significantly more in younger age, less educated and housewives than their counterparts. Likewise ANCs of rural area had more chances of Anemia than those residing in urban areas. And ANCs having either zero parity or parity more than two had more probability to have anemia than their counterparts.
Keywords: Antenatal Cases (ANCs), Anemia in pregnancy, Determinants of ANCs