Monday, 11 January 2021

Medical Journal: December 2020

Evaluation of the Inter-Premolar Width Changes in the Mandible using Three Different Commercial Arch Wires: A Prospective Clinical Study

Abstract

Objective: The aims of this study is to evaluate the inter-premolar width changes in the mandible using three different commercial orthodontic arch wires.

Subjects and methods: Thirty patients including both males and females have been allocated in this study. Three orthodontic wires including NiTi, copper NiTi, and Beta-Titanium wires had been used. A special observational technique including CBCT had been used to make an evaluation for the inter-premolar width before and after the aligning stage.

Results: The results showed a highly significant increase in post-treatment inter premolar width in CNA and NITI groups; compared to Cu NITI group; with highly significant statistical difference (p < 0.01 respectively).

Conclusion: The present study showed that there is a high significant increase in the inter-premolar width in the mandible, when comparing the wires in the groups (NiTi, CNA, and copper niti). Also, the gender of the patient does not seem to have an impact of the gender on post-treatment efficacy of each wire.

Keywords— Mandible, Commercial Arch Wires, NiTi, copper NiTi, Beta-Titanium wires.

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Performing Maxillofacial Surgeries during Covid19: Current Challenges and Possible Solutions

Abstract The world is witnessing an invasion from a new corona virus, which resulted in more than one million of deaths. Most of the sectors such industrial, economy, and tourism are facing a crisis, hence the workers in the field of medicine, considered to be the barrier to fight this invasion. This new virus seems to have two main transmission routes: direct and contact, which it will open a high chance of infection among professional health providers, especially, surgeons and dentists. Maxillofacial and dental surgeons, considered to be essential professional health experts that perform, multiple surgeries and dental procedures every day, consequently, these professions will exhibit a high risk of getting infected by Covid19, due to that, this review article aimed to discuss the possible ways that it may help in optimizing the level of infection control.

Keywords— Covid 19, corona virus, Maxillofacial Surgeries, health providers, dental surgeons.

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Ginkgo Biloba Polypeptide Preparation Key Technology Research

Abstract In this study, ginkgo powder was used as the research object, and neutral protease and flavor protease were selected to study the degree of hydrolysis of ginkgo protein. Using single factor test and orthogonal test, the results show that the addition amount of neutral protease is 1.6mg/ml, pH is 7.0, enzymolysis temperature is 44oC, and the reaction time is 4h, the best hydrolysis degree is 4.68%; flavor; The added amount of protease is 7.2mg/ml, pH is 6.5, enzymolysis temperature is 55oC, and the reaction time is 6h. The best hydrolysis degree is 24.95%; finally, the ginkgo polypeptide is obtained by separation and purification by 3kDa filter membrane. The yield rate was 8.73%, and the obtained filtrate was concentrated by a rotary evaporator to prepare a polypeptide concentrate.

Keywords— Ginkgo peptide; Enzyme hydrolysis; Membrane separation and purification.

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Assessment of the Inter-Molar Width Changes in the Mandible by using different Orthodontic Arch Wires: A Prospective Clinical Study

Abstract The demands for orthodontic treatment are in continuous increasing, hence producing an ideal treatment plan need to cover all stages of the treatment carefully, especially the retention and stabilization stage. As, any changing in the arch width through changing the inter-molar width will lead to impair the stabilization of the arch and will lead to relapse. Due to that, the present study performed to evaluate the inter-molar width of the mandible using three different commercial orthodontic wires. Thirty patients had been allocated in this study, using a cone beam computed tomography to create an assessment for the inter-molar width. It concluded that there is an increase in the inter-molar width between pre-treatment and after finishing of aligning stage, also there is a highly significant increase in post-aligning stage between the three groups.

Keywords— Inter-molar width changes, Orthodontic Arch Wires, retention stage, stabilization stage, NiTi wires.

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Medical Journal: October 2020

Arch Dimensions Changes of Egyptian Orthodontic Patients using Different Orthodontic Archwires: A Prospective Clinical Study

Abstract

Objective: The aim of the present study was to make an evaluation of inter-canine width before and after the stage of levelling and alignment in the mandible using three different orthodontic arch wires.

Subjects and methods: Thirty orthodontic patients both males and females were selected and treated by the same researcher. The patients were randomly divided equally into three groups according to the type of wire that was used, so Group A, B and C will be used. Group A, this group included 10 patients treated with (CNA) wire. Group B, this group included 10 patients treated with (Cu NITI) wire. Group C, this group included 10 patients treated with (NITI) wire.

Results: The results showed that inter-canine width showed no significance after the finishing of the leveling and alignment stage.

Keywords: arch, wires, inter-canine, width, orthodontic.

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Social Stigma and other Consequences of COVID-19 Pandemic in Low Resource Setting, in Eastern Africa: Need to Increase Preventive Efforts and Addressing the Consequences, 2020

Abstract Since the emergency of COVID-19 pandemics, many countries have been encountered a multitude of challenges. People have been facing health related and other social consequences throughout the world. It is too early to know the aggravated impact of COVID-19 on people living in resource-limited setting, like east Africa countries. In these countries, besides direct public health impact, the COVID-19 pandemic has provoked social stigma and discriminatory behaviors against people of certain ethnic backgrounds as well as anyone perceived to have been in contact with the virus. Social stigma can negatively affect those with the disease, as well as their caregivers, family, friends and communities.COVID-19 pandemics have also been provoked great impacts on daily social consumptions such as food and other food supplements. In addition, COVID-19 pandemic were overshadowed endemics diseases such as malaria, TB and HIV related care and antenatal care services as well as other non-communicable diseases prevention and control. Social stigma coupled with other consequences could result in more severe health problems, can undermine social cohesion and prompt possible social isolation of groups, which might contribute to a situation where the virus is more, not less, likely to spread and difficulties controlling a disease outbreak. Therefore, how we communicate about COVID-19 is critical in supporting people to take effective action to help combat the disease and to avoid fuelling fear and stigma. An environment needs to be created in which the disease and its impact can be discussed and addressed openly, honestly and effectively. This is a message for government, media and local organizations working on the COVID-19 infections.

Keywords— COVID-19, Social consequence, Resource - limited setting, Africa.

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Pre-Diabetes State: Anthropometric and Haematological Parameters

Abstract—Diabetic is a well known public health problem of today. There are many risk factors of it, which can be identified in pre-diabetic state. So the present study was conducted with the aim to know the status of anthropometric and haematological parameters in pre-diabetic states. For this hospital based study pre-diabetic subjects were identified from first degree relatives of type 2 DM Patients, enrolled in diabetic research centre P.B.M. hospital Bikaner. Relevant investigations were done. Data thus collected on semi-structured questionnaire and analysed using content analysis. Data analysis revealed that although mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was within normal range but Waist circumference (WC), West Hip (W/H) Ratio, Systolic blood pressure were higher than the normal range accepted for that parameter. But mean value of all the studied haematological parameter were within the normal range accepted for that parameter. So it can be conclude that anthropology of an individual may be associated with the pre-diabetic state. Hypertension was found in 25.35% of pre-diabetics. Further researches are necessary to find out this possible association of anthropologic parameter and pre-diabetic state.

Keywords: Pre-diabetes, Anthropometric Parameters, Haematological Parameters, Hypertension.

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Friday, 2 October 2020

Medical Journal: September 2020

Maternal health care services utilization amidst Covid-19 lockdown: retrospective study

Abstract

Objective: The objective was to find the changes in maternal health care utilization.

Design: Retrospective design was adopted.

Setting: Study was conducted in Damak, Nepal.

Methods: Data from four hospitals was retrieved for fiscal year 2076/77 (July 14,2019 - June 14 2020). Trend analysis was done.

Results : Study showed a decline in utilization of overall maternal health care during the months of Lockdown The utilization of antenatal care services has declined in the beginning of Lockdown but shows an increasing trend in the month of May-June. The number of Normal deliveries has declining trend since the beginning of Lockdown. The number of Caeserean Section declined during (March 14-April 12) and slightly increased in Bhaishak (April 13-May 13), but reduced again in the month of Jestha (may13-June14). The number of permanent family planning service use reduced in Chaitra (March 14-April 12), increased very slightly in Bhaishak(April 13-May 13), and declined again in the month of Jestha(may13-June14). The utilization of temporary family planning method and immunization has increased in the later month of Lockdown.

Conclusion: This decline in utilization may increase the maternal morbidity and mortality rates.

Keywords: Maternal health services, COVID-19 lockdown, Nepal.

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Perceived Economic Crisis due to COVID-19 and its Impact on Health

Abstract A mixed research design was adopted to explore the perceived economic impact of COVID-19 and its impact on health. Quantitative data was used to find out the status of microeconomic parameters and FGD was done to find out the perceived economic impact and its impact on health. The quantitative data was retrieved from the Nepal Rastriya Bank’s database. FGD was conducted among experts in the field of economics and health. The quantitative analysis showed decline in remittance and economic growth. The thematic analysis of the FGD revealed that remittance will decrease further and will have a negative economic growth. The participants predicted that the population falling under poverty line will also increase. They also predicted that mental health problems like depression, anxiety, PTSD, substance and alcohol use and sleep problems are likely to increase. They also predicted that the after effects of this pandemic will bring a huge burden on public health and the non-communicable disease is likely to increase. This study recommends that employment opportunities needs to be created and the health service points need to be strengthened. Mental health assessment should be made a part of health assessment in quarantine. This study emphasizes on maintaining physical distance while being socially connected.

Keywords— Covid-19, Economic Crisis, FDP, Economy in Covid-19.

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Physical Therapy A Critical Component in Breast Cancer and Secondary Lymphedema: A Rehabilitation Perspective

Abstract—

Purpose: The main purpose of the methodical review is to obtain the importance of Physiotherapy Rehabilitation in breast cancer-related lymphedema in order to elucidate the role of Physiotherapy in these patients.

Methods: A systematic data search was performed using Google scholar, PubMed (from February 2001 till August 2020) and is focused on the rehabilitative aspect of breast cancer related secondary lymphedema and undertaken according to the PRISMA statement with Levels of Evidence (LoE) assessed.

Results: 14 randomized controlled trials that included 158 women with breast cancer in after care were included. The included for articles studies of effect different types of physiotherapy regimens like exercises that consisted of lymph training, swimming, resistance exercise, gravity-resistive exercise and aerobic exercises. The mentioned articles were thoroughly analyzed and included in the review.

Conclusion: The evidence indicates that Physiotherapy can improve subjective and objective parameters in BCRL patients although it is found to be helpful in improving the quality of life of these patients.

Keywords— Breast cancer, Lymphedema, Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation.

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Medical Journal: August 2020

Management of Sepsis Patient Aggravated by Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Abstract Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulation of the host's response to infection. Sepsis can lead to ketoacidosis in diabetes mellitus patients. A 60 years old male complained of headache, mild fever and painful swallowing since 2 weeks prior to hospital admission. History of diabetes mellitus is unknown. Based on examination, the working diagnosis for the patient was sepsis, suspected periapical abscess, type II diabetes mellitus with diabetic ketoacidosis and decreased consciousness. Initial management of sepsis, insulin, and endotracheal intubation were performed. The patient then was admitted to the ICU. Management of sepsis is very important and should be performed based on 1-hour SSC bundle while performing management of DKA. The patient had periapical abscess which is thought to be the source of sepsis. Sepsis then triggers DKA, and several organ dysfunctions in the form of AKI, DIC, and respiratory distress.

Keywords Diabetic ketoacidosis, Periapical abscess, Sepsis.

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Functional Outcome of Diaphyseal Femoral Fractures Treated with Titanium Elastic Nail in Paediatric Age Group (05 To 15 Years)

Abstract— Femoral shaft fractures are very demanding injuries to the patients and their families. Majority of cases occurs in children and adolescents. Titanium elastic nailing is one of the operative procedures for treatment of such fractures. So this present study was conducted on 30 diaphyseal femoral fracture patients aged 05-15 years treated with Titanium elastic nailing with the aim to assess the functional outcome of such cases in western Rajasthan scenario. It was found that. average time of union was found 6.33 weeks, average period of full weight bearing was 7.66 weeks and with average time 6.4 weeks. So it conclude that fracture of femur treated with Titanium Elastic Nailing has very good results that Titanium Elastic Nailing is an ideal device to treat pediatric femoral shaft fractures between age group 5-15 years.

Keywords: Femoral shaft fractures, diaphyseal femoral fracture, Titanium elastic nailing, Functional outcomes.

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Friday, 1 June 2018

Medical Journal- May 2018

Medical Journal: Published volume-4, Issue-5, May 2018 with ad publications

Health and physical development problems in undergraduate students and comparison of opinion between males and females regarding helpfulness of guidance and counselling services to cope with their health and physical development problems

Abstract— Adolescent health and physical development problems are important issue in student life; there are many helpful services to cope with these problems. This study was conducted on 240 students (120 males and 120 females) to know their health and physical development problems and to compare the response of males & females for helpfulness of guidance and counselling services to help them to cope with their health and physical development problems. Study was done at Rajamagala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Pathum Tani Province, Thailand. This study used the Mooney Problem Checklist, College Form which contains 30 statements and the six scales of guidance and counselling service namely Individual and Group Counselling, Consulting, Guidance, Coordination, Assessment, and 3 Personal Growth and Development. Study population was randomly selected 240 undergraduate students from eight difference faculties’ v.i.z. Agricultural Technology, Business Administration, Engineering, Fine and Applied Arts, Home Economics Technology, Liberal Arts, Science and Technology, and Technical Education. This study observed that out of 120 male Thai undergraduate students, 113 (94.2%) male students said that they have troubled with their feet. Otherwise, 119 (99.2%) female students argued that they have not as strong healthy as they should be and they have had poor complexion or skin trouble (N = 120).The result of t-test analysis showed that there was a significant different between Thai male and female students on the helpfulness of individual and group counselling service (N = 120, t (118) =0.903, p = 0.015) consultation service (N = 120, t (118) = 0.983, p<0.001), guidance service (N = 120, t (118) = 0.903, p = 0.015), coordination service (N = 120, t (118) = 0.744, p = 0.017), assessment service (N = 120, t (118) = 0.969, p = 0.002), and personal growth and development service (N = 120, t (118) = 0.902, p = 0.015) provided by the guidance counsellor in helping undergraduate students to cope with their health and physical development problems at a significant level of 0.05.

Keywords: Guidance and Counselling Services, Health and Physical Development Problems, Undergraduate Students.

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A comparative analysis of first trimester medical abortion in cases with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus: A case control study

Abstract—In recent years, termination of pregnancy has also become more common procedure due to intensive development of medicines and increasing demand for such procedures. In previously scarred uterus the use of medical abortion regimen could avoid severe complications such as uterine perforation, cervical laceration and other physical and psychological trauma which are caused by surgical termination of pregnancy. This prospective study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, J.L.N. Medical College, Ajmer from December 2015 to November 2017 to compare the efficacy, safety and acceptability of medical abortion in previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. For this study 75 women were included of amenorrhoea < 49 days with previous one or two LSCS (Lower segment cesarean section) and 75 women with no LSCS (primi and multipara with prior normal delivery). Regime which was used in this study was tab. Mifepristone 200 mg followed by Misoprostol 600µgm were given to them. Follow up was done at day 14 using sonography. The overall success rate for complete abortion in group I was 88% and that of group II was 89.3%.Total proportion of incomplete abortion was 9.33% in group I as compared to 8% in group II and continuation of pregnancy occurred 2.67% in both the groups during the entire study period. Thus there was no significant difference in efficacy of medicines in achieving abortion in scared and non-scared uterus. So early medical abortion represents an important method in previous scarred uterus patients having unwanted pregnancy. These regimens offer the prospect of a more private, less intrusive form of abortion that is both safe and effective.

Keywords: Medical abortion, Scarred uterus, Non-scarred uterus, Mifepristone, Misoprostol.

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Tribological Examination of Calcium alginate – UHMWPE blends

Abstract Continuing our previous researches on UHMWPE (Ultra-High- Molecular-Weight Polyethylene) based implant material and its fusion with Ca-alginate, we describe new methods for preparing Ca-alginate blended UHMWPE samples and how we extended the testing of the prepared samples. If sufficient content of Ca-alginate can be achieved and the Calcium-alginate blended UHMWPE can be made, it might lead to an implant material which can promote bone formation. Earlier result shows that the Calcium–alginate contentwill be formed in the structure of UHMWPE. Using our new modified methods we can make polyethylene samples with sufficiently tough alginate content which can withstand washing and sterilization as that is shown in the paper. Since we had modified the UHMWPE specimens with Ca-alginates we carried out different types of wear testing on the prepared samples.

Keywords UHMWPE, Na-alginate, Ca-alginate.

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Microbiological survey of the bathing water of moroccan beaches from Mehdia to Skhirat

Abstract—The Moroccan coastline occupies a privileged place at the level of the entire coastline of the African continent. The quality of bathing water is a criterion increasingly demanded by the general public for the choice of its holiday resorts. Main objective of this present study is to find out the status of to find status of bathing water through physicochemical and microbiological examination.

Sampling was done from 8 beaches of Kenitra Mehdia, Nations, Rabat-Sale, Harhoura, Temara, Golden Sand, Val D'or and the beach of Skhirate Amphitrite. Bacteriological evaluations were done & presence of feacal Coliforms and/or Streptococci was considered as indicative of faecal pollution. Enumeration of faecal Coliforms and faecal Streptococci was done by filter membrane method on nutrient media Tergitol7 Agar, Litskey, Slanetz & Bartley. In addition to microbiological sampling of water, temperature and pH of the water were measured "in situ". Data related to the tide (high or low) and populations were collected.

Regarding bacterial load of beaches in present study it was found that at Mehdia beach, Nations beach, Rabat-Sale beach, Temara beach, Harhoura beach, Sable D’or beach and at Skhirat beach the contamination standard is exceeded in 30% of samples for CF and 20% for SF, 10% for CF and 0% for SF, 100% of the samples for CF and 70% for SF, 50% for CF and in none (0%) for SF, 20% for CF and 10% for SF, 30% for CF and 10% for SF and 40% for CF and 10% for SF respectively. But at Val D'or beach in none of sample exceed the guide value (VG) for faecal Coliform and fecal Streptococci. So the beaches of the Nations, Harhoura and Val D'or are classified A. The beaches of Mehdia, Temara, Golden Sand and Skhirat with medium quality waters are classified B. Only the beach of Rabat-Sale was found polluted and classified in category C.

Keywords: Coastline Pollution, Microbiology, Coliforms, Streptococci, Morocco.

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Tuesday, 15 May 2018

Medical Journal- April 2018

Medical Journal: Published volume-4, Issue-4, April 2018 with ad publications

Design and Architecture of Intelligent Medical Machines: A Research Paper

Abstract— Commonalities between the engineering rigor and the medical approach were explored to solve problems and present generic platforms to fuse the engineering rigor into the current medical approach to resolve the concerns of medical machine designers. The design methodology stresses the ability to fragment medical problems and their procedures into a series or a combination of minor or even microscopic problems (and their procedures) which are resolved by enforcing one or more actions by intelligent agents (or noun objects) to solve the localized problem. A certain amount of knowledge in the solution process is fed back to customize the specific solution for the specific patient. A series of minuscule of such knowledge modules are appropriately integrated to solve the entire medical problem for the patient. This minuscule’s of knowledge become programmable instruction for a medical machine with access to World Wide Web and knowledge bases that can verify and enhance the solution strategy for the fragmented problems.

The role of knowledge and its programmability become crucial to finding an optimal and efficient solution to solve routine, mid-sized or large medical problems of the patients during routine doctor’s visits. It is our contention that the suggested approaches in blending the industry wide practices in the design and manufacture of digital devices and systems can reduce the cost of providing medical services substantially. With reasonable care in selecting the intelligent agents (doctors, staff, instruments, laboratories, and/or medicines), their respective actions and functions in efficient and effective combinations at appropriate instants of time can be a significant step forward in cost reduction and (near) flawless administration of medical procedures.

The paper spans numerous disciplines ranging from mathematics, computer and knowledge science, the science of management including program evaluation and review technique (PERT) and optimization of strategies. The role of these disciplines is incisive and restricted the practice of medicine and the many roles that computer systems that are essential building blocks of medical machines.

Keywords: Medical Machines, Evolution of Medical Processor Units, Intelligent Medical Processor Units.

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Assessment of Stress, Attention and Memory in High School Students in Latacunga, Ecuador: A cross-sectional survey

Abstract—Stress is the side effect of development. Nowadays school going children also had stress and it’s after effects. So this research was carried out in order to evaluate indicators of stress level (stress test), attention (Toulouse-Pièron test), immediate memory (word list test) and working memory (reverse order digit test), to a group of 40 students of the school whose age was between 15 and 17 year. Survey done on first of April in the International Baccalaureate level of the Latacunga city, Cotopaxi province, Republic of Ecuador. The perceptual and attention testing Toluuse-Pièron for additions and omissions plus errors did not throw significant differences between gender; but they behaved over 20 % of the hits, which showed a lack of deep concentration and attention over time. The stress test showed that females were more stressed in relation to males; however, for the word test and the reverse-order digits, no significant differences between the genders were found. A nonlinear (polynomial) relationship was found between the stress of the students and the memory. So it can be concluded that females were significantly more stressed than males whereas regarding memory there was no significant difference in both the sexes. It was also revealed that there was no linear relation between stress and memory.

Keywords: Stress, Attention, Memory, Concentration.

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Comparative Study on Macroscopic Morphology of Human Placenta in Preterm, Term & Post Term Pregnancy

Abstract— Pregnancy is highly precious for every couple but presence of risk factors that cause prematurity, post maturity and various other conditions that complicate the pregnancy have adverse effects. Gross examination of the placenta may provide useful information about the etiology of newborn and maternal complications. Hence it is important to study relationships between placental abnormalities, gestational age and occurrence of adverse outcome. So, this study aims to compare the macroscopic morphology of human placenta in preterm, term and post-term pregnancy. A hospital based comparative observational study conducted on placentae of 40 pre-term, 40 term and 40 post-term. Shape, weight, diameter, thickness, mode of insertion of umbilical cord, number of cotyledons and arrangement of chorionic vessels was observed of each placenta included in the study. These variables of palcentae were compared as per pre-term, term and post-term. Significance of difference was determined by Chi-square test. This study revealed that most of the placentae were discoidal in shape. And the weight as well as diameter of the term placentae were significantly more from preterm placentae. Likewise weight and diameter both of the post term placentae were significantly more form term placentae. Regarding thickness of placentae, term placentae thickness were more from preterm placentae and post-term placentae were more from term placentae but it was found significant in term to preterm not in term to post-term. So it can be concluded from this study that as gestational period increases weight, diameter and thickness of placenta increases. Observing the facts, more studies are suggested to explore the other variables related to placenta and its relation to pregnancy outcomes.

Keywords: Placenta, Macroscopic anatomy of Placenta, Pregnancy Outcomes.

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VACTERL association: A Case Report of a congenital malformations

AbstractVACTERL / VATER association is defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, trachea-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies and limb abnormalities. It is diagnosed clinically by the above features with presence of core component features like trachea-esophageal fistula or ano-rectal malformations. Etiology is largely unknown. Management centers on surgical correction of the specific congenital malformations in the immediate postnatal period followed by long term treatment of the sequelae. Prognosis is good if surgical correction is achieved but majority continue to be affected by their malformations throughout life.

Keywords: VACTERL Association, Congenital Malformations.

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Correlations of Serum Level of 25(OH)D and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) among chronic patients of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

Abstract—Chronic patients of spinal cord injury has been detected severe reduction of bone density. Patients with SCI show mostly osteopenia or osteoporosis of the hip and spine. Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to development of osteoporosis in SCI. So a study was conducted on 100 chronic SCI patients to find out status of correlation of Vitamine D and bone mineral density (BMD). Blood samples were collected and investigated routine biochemistry with serum 25(OH)D. DXA scan of hip and spine was also done. This study observed that 55% patients had suboptimal vitamin D. Positive correlation was found between vitamin D & bone mineral density. It is concluded from this study that monitoring of Serum 25(OH)D levels and annual surveillance of bone mineral density is crucial among persons with chronic SCI to reduce progression of osteoporosis and minimize the risk for further fractures.

Keywords: 25(OH)D: 25 Hydroxy Vitamin D, DXA: Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, BMD: Bone Mineral Density.

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Assessment of Knowledge and Practices regarding personal hygiene among students of Government schools of Jaipur city: A cross-sectional survey

Abstract— Hygiene practices are very important, poor hygiene results into various communicable diseases. These hygiene practices can have cultivated in Childhood. School children are particularly vulnerable to neglect the basic personal hygiene. So this study was conducted on 1385 school children to assess the status of knowledge and practices of their hygiene with the source of their knowledge. This study was conducted on 1385 students of 6 selected schools of Jaipur city. It was observed that it was observed that 98.4% had knowledge about body and clothes hygiene, 95.2% had knowledge about teeth brushing, 92.5% had knowledge about regular clothes washing, 89.2% had knowledge about soap use in personal hygiene, 50.3% had knowledge about use of toilet paper, 78.8% had knowledge about use of nail cutter and 37.1% knowledge about sanitary pad. And 97.3% practice for bath & brush teeth every day, 95.1% practiced for hand wash before meal, 74.3% practiced for hand wash before cooking, 66.6% practiced for hand wash after cooking, 90.2% practiced for hand wash after using toilet, 87.8% practiced for hand wash after handling garbage, 75.7% practiced for hand wash after handling animal, 73.6% practiced for cutting nails in < 7 days, 80.8% take hair cut out in < 1 month, 70.1% use soap as hygiene product, 42.7% use facial tissue as hygiene product and 50.1% use cotton swab as hygiene product.

Keywords: Hygiene, Knowledge, Practices, School Children.

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Clinical assessment of Fetal weight estimation using Johnson's formula & Ultrasonographic assessment using Hadlock's formula at or near term: A comparative observational study

Abstract—Fetal weight in conjuction with gestational age is an important indicator of pregnancy outcome. So this study was conducted to find out the better method among using Johnson's formula or using Hadlock's formula to estimate fetal weight antenatally at or near term. This prospective study conducted on 100 pregnant women selected by simple random sampling with single term pregnancy with no fetal anomalies, delivered within one week of ultrasonography as well as measuring the symphysiofundal height and accuracy of Johnson's and Hadlock's formula compared. Fetal Weight is overestimated in all groups by Johnson's formula whereas in Hadlock’s formula there is underestimation of birth weight <2500 gms and >3500 gms babies and overestimation between 2500-3500 gms babies. The correct weight was estimated with an error of 100gms in 30% of cases by Johnson’s formula and in 68% of cases by ultrasound Hadlock's method. Although Hadlock's formula was found relatively more accurate than Johnson's formula in predicting birth weight but Johnson's formula is a quick, easy, accurate, reliable and cost effective method for estimating the fetal weight in remote areas where ultrasound is not available if assessed by experienced obstetricians. Despite the superiority of ultrasonography the simple clinical method of predicting fetal weight is of great value especially in developing countries.

Keywords: Fetal Weight, Johnson's Formula, Hadlock's Formula.

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Comparison of diagnostic efficacy of USG, Tuberculin test, Nucleic acid amplification test (PCR) & histopathology for diagnosis of genital tuberculosis in infertile women, assuming culture as gold standard

Abstract— Female genital tuberculosis is one of the major etiological factors of female infertility. Diagnosis of genital tuberculosis is very important in such cases. So this comparative observational type of study was carried out on infertile women to compare the diagnostic effectively of ultrasonograpgy (USG), genital tuberculosis, Tuberculin test, Nucleic acid amplification test (PCR), histopathology and hysteroscopy & laparoscopy (DHL) assuming culture as gold standard. It was observed that the 28% of infertile cases were found positive for genital tuberculosis on culture. Sensitivity of PCR 64.28%, DHL 92.85%, USG 42.85%, Histopathology 60.71% and Tuberculin Test 64.28%. So sensitivity was found with significant variation ranging from 42.85% with ultrasonography (USG) to 92.85% with DHL. Specificity of PCR 52.77%, DHL 55.55%, USG 98.61%, Histopathology 91.66% and Tuberculin Test 36.11%. So specificity was also found with significant variation being found maximum with USG (98.61%) and minimum with tuberculin test (36.11%). Positive predictive value (PPV) was found maximum (92.3%) with USG and minimum (28.12%) with tuberculin test and negative predictive value (NPV) was found maximum (95.23%) with DHL and minimum (72.22%) with tuberculin test. Diagnostic effectively of diagnosing GTB with various studied modalities vary with significant variation.

Keywords: Infertility, diagnostic efficacy, genital tuberculosis, Tuberculin test, Nucleic acid amplification test (PCR).

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Burden of infertility and its associated factors: A cross sectional descriptive analysis of infertility cases reported at a tertiary level hospital of Rajasthan

Abstract—In many cultures in India, womanhood is defined through motherhood and infertile women usually carry the blame for the couple inability to conceive. A childless woman is stigmatized and sometimes not allowed to participate in various auspicious ceremonies, particularly those involving childbirth. The present study was undertaken in S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan to find out the factors contributing to infertility and the health seeking behavior of infertile women. A hospital based observational study was carried out in year 2017 on eligible women attending OPD of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Mahila Chikitsalaya, S.M.S. Medical College Jaipur. A total 1000 eligible women were recruited using systematic random sampling and interviewed using a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. A total of 119 women (11.9%) were found to be infertile. Age of women, caste, residence, education status of women, occupation, family size and socio-economic status were found to be significantly associated with infertility (P<0.05). Lower age of women, OBC caste, urban residence, less family size, lesser education status of women, housewives and middle socio-economic status were found to have significantly more infertile females than their counterparts. Age of women, type of family and religion were not found to be associated with infertility (P >0.05). Improving awareness about infertility and its management could help reduce the burden and its social implications.

Keywords: Infertility, Infertile Women.

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Thursday, 5 April 2018

Medical Journal- March 2018

Medical Journal: Published volume-4, Issue-3, March 2018 with ad publications

Bacterial Examination of Wells of the Maâmora Tablecloth: A community based survey in Kenitra, Morocco

Abstract—Pollution of water resources is a global problem. Unfortunately, groundwater is more sensitive to contamination by industrial waste, agriculture, household waste and wastewater that lead to physicochemical (pesticides, heavy metals, nitrates) and biological (viruses, bacteria, parasites) pollution. Bacterial contaminations of water are responsible for the emergence of many serious epidemic diseases (Cholera, Typhoid, Tuberculosis etc). The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of farms intensification and untreated sewage discharges on the microbiological quality of Maâmora water wells. Initially, bacteriological analysis done to identify not only pathogenic faecal germs but also indicator germs which have the same origin and which indicate that the water has been in contact with feces. In a second step, these identified germs were counted. Germs included in this study were Escherichia coli and Streptococci. Analysis were done about total & faecal coliforms and faecal Streptococci from the raw water of 16 boreholes on the Maamora aquifer, Kenitra. Microbiological analysis of the waters of these studied boreholes were compared with WHO standards of potability i.e. Zero bacteria/100mL for Faecal Coliforms, Total Coliforms and Faecal Streptococci. This study reveal that there was more (33% to 42%) contamination in studied wells with total germs who attained 1 to 13 bacteria/1mL. These results calls for an improvement of the control water quality of the Maâmora and develop vigilance tools for decision-makers to managers.

Keywords— Pollution of water, Bacterial contamination, Maâmora Tablecloth, Morocco.

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Clinico-epidemiological study of wound infection: A case series type of descriptive study

Abstract—Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a substantial problem for patients undergoing procedures in spite of advances in surgical techniques and medical care. So this case series of SSI were studied to know the clinico-epidemiological profile of these cases to better know the etiology for better prevention. This study was conducted on 100 cases of SSI admitted and operated in surgical wards of upgraded department of surgery in Sawai Man Singh Hospital Jaipur, chosen at random irrespective of age, sex undergoing emergency laparotomies. It was observed from this study that most common sign and symptom was discharge (38%) followed by pain and tenderness (33%), raised local temperature (23%) and suture under tension/cut though (11%). Most of the wound infection was detected on 3rd to 5th post operated day. Regarding collection in wound it was observed that 60% was with seropurulent collection 18% with serous and purulent collection and 5% with fecopurulent collection. Etiological agent was found E. coli in 27% followed by Enterobactor (5%), Staphylococcus (2%) and Kleibsella (1%) and Pseudomonas (1%).

Keywords: Surgical Site Infections (SSI), Laparotomies.

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Micro-albuminuria in non-diabetic, non-hypertensive cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients: A case control study

Abstract—Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prominent health problem and micro-albunemia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in these CVDs in developing countries. This case control study was designed to find out burden of micro-albuminuria in non-diabetic non-hypertensive CVD patients and its associating factors. In this study, 50 Non Diabetic Non Hypertensive CVD Patients were submitted to a complete clinical and laboratory evaluation. Patients with known micro-albuminuria, UTI and congestive heart failure were excluded. These cases were compared with matched controls. It was observed that 36% of non-diabetic, non-hypertensive CVD patients had microalbuminuric by Clinitek method. There was a positive association between dyslipidaemia and micro-albuminuria was also observed in this study. The microalbuminuric CVD patients (non-diabetic, non-hypertensive) had significantly elevated levels of serum cholesterol (p<0.05), triglycerides (p<0.05) and LDL (p<0.05) as compared to normoalbuminuric patients. It can be concluded from this study that the micro-albuminuria was present in more than one third of non-diabetic non-hypertensive CVD patients. Older age group, Body Mass Index (BMI) and lipid profile had significant relationship with the presence of micro-albuminuria.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease (CVD), Triglycerides, Micro-albuminuria.

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Comparison of pregnancy outcome with use of metformin versus insulin in management of gestation diabetes mellitus: An interventional study

Abstract—Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a problem which may occur during pregnancy. For treatment of GDM either the Metformin or Insulin is used. So this prospective randomized multicenter trial in women with GDM was conducted to compare the treatment outcomes of metformin and insulin. This study was conducted at Rajkiya Mahila Chikitsalaya, in Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Ajmer. This study was done on 110 women who were diagnosed GDM by DIPSI criteria with a singleton pregnancy and meet entry criteria are randomized to insulin or metformin treatment (55 cases in each group).It was observed that metformin is equally efficacious and safe as insulin with a lot of advantages like less costly, better compliance, less weight gain, less change of hypoglycaemic attack and more feasible as insulin require several daily injection with not much difference in perinatal outcome except statistically significant difference in baby weight, mean cord blood sugar level at birth, large for gestation age. So it can be concluded that Metformin treatment is suitable for non-obese as well as obese type 2 diabetes patients in pregnancy without complications. Metformin is a safer alternate to insulin in GDM management with no adverse maternal and fetal outcome.

Keywords: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), pregnancy outcomes.

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Bio-socio-demographic study of individuals with Pteryzium: A case series type of descriptive study

Abstract— Pterygium is a common disorder in many parts of the world including India. So this study is designed to find out the bio-socio-demographic profile of Pteryzium cases which can help in understanding its distribution. This study observed that mean age of individuals with Pteryzium was 37.23±1.71 years. Maximum number of cases belongs to ≥26-50 years of age (83%). Pterygium was found slightly more in females was 55.71% as compared to males (44.29%). Most of the cases were housewife (52.86%) followed by labourer (14.29%). Majority (80%) cases were exposed to sunlight. Mean size of pterygium was 2.616±0.529 mm ranging from 2 mm to 3.8mm.In our study, with Keratometer, mean astigmatism was found 1.35±1.127D and from Scheimpflug imaging, mean astigmatism was found 1.22±0.95D in this study.

Keywords: Pterygium, Bio-socio-demographic factors, Astigmatism Scheimpflug imaging.

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Incomplete EEC (Ectrodactyly, Ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate) syndrome with bilateral Entropion: A Case Report

AbstractEEC syndrome is a very rare syndrome having ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/ palate as cardinal signs with other variable associated features. Very few cases being reported. It is mostly inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Such cases need coordinated multidisciplinary approach for treatment. A case of incomplete EEC syndrome having ectrodactyly and cleft palate with absence of the signs of ectodermal dysplasia with no systemic anomalies was reported. Other features noted in this case were syndactyly of fingers and toes with bilateral entropion.

Keywords: Syndrome, Ectrodactyly, Ectodermal dysplasia, Syndactyly, Entropion.

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